Essential Formulas for Math Class

Part 2 of Essential Formulas to Know

Formulas are part of math at every step of the way. We have compiled a list of essential math formulas that you will often see in the different grades. These formulas range from the distributive property to Linear formulas.

Distributive Property Formula

The Distributive Property allows us to solve an expression in the form of a(b+c).

  •  a(b+c) = ab + ac


Formula for F.O.I.L.-ing

The “FOIL” method stands for “First, Outer, Inner, Last”

The sum of:

Multiplying the First terms

Multiplying the Outer terms

Multiplying the Inner terms

Multiplying the Last terms

(a+b) (c+d) = ac + ad + bc + bd

Volume Formulas of Different Shapes


  • Volume of a Prism = (base area) x (height) = bh
  • Volume of Rectangular Prism = (length x width x height)= lwh
  • Volume of Triangular Prism = ½ (triangle base) (triangle height) = ½ bhl
  • Volume of a Cylinder = (𝛑 x (radius)2) x (height) = 𝛑r2h
  • Volume of a Pyramid = ⅓ ((rectangle base) (rectangle height)) x (pyramid height)= 1/3lwh
  • Volume of a Cone = ⅓(𝛑 x (radius)2) x (height) = ⅓  𝛑r2h
  • Volume of a Sphere = 4/3𝛑(radius)3  

The Most Essential Math Formulas to Know in High School

Although most of the Math formulas in High School are important to know, middle school is a great chance to memorize and work on these formulas that will be used often.

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Quadratic Formula

The standard form is ax2 + bx +c = y, where you’ll set y equal to 0, and solve for x by factoring or using the formula below:

  • (x2-y2)=(x+y)(x-y)
  • x2+2xy+y2=(x+y)2
  • x2-2xy+y2=(x-y)2

Cross Multiplication

  • If a/b = c/d, then ad = bc.

12. Absolute Value

  • If x = 4,then x = 4 or x = -4
  • If x > 4,then −4<x<4
  • If X > 4,then x<−4 or x>4

Linear Function

  • linear: y=mx + b (linear function)



Written by Pam Crum

Edited by Michael Leonard

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